1. TRACHEA

    1. EXTENDS INTO THE THORACIC CAVITY

    2. DIVIDES INTO THE RIGHT AND LEFT BRONCHI

    3. MUCOUS LINING FILTERS INCOMING AIR

    4. WALL IS SUPPORTED BY CARTILAGINOUS RINGS

  2. BRONCHIAL TREE

    1. BRANCHED AIR PASSAGE WAYS THAT LEAD TO THE ALVEOLI

    2. BRANCHES OF THE BRONCHIAL TREE INCLUDE :

      1. PRIMARY BRONCHI
      2. LOBAR BRONCHI
      3. SEGMENTAL BRONCHI
      4. BRONCHIOLES
      5. TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES
      6. RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES
      7. ALVEOLIAR DUCTS
      8. ALVEOLAR SACS
      9. ALVEOLI

    3. STRUCTURE OF THE RESPIRATORY TUBES :

      1. AS TUBES BRANCH, THE AMOUNT OF CARTILAGE DECREASES

      2. MUSCULAR LAYER MORE PROMINENT AS BRANCHING CONTINUES

      3. ELASTIC FIBERS IN THE WALL AID BREATHING

      4. EPITHELIUM CHANGES FROM PSUEDOSTRATIFUED CILIATED TO CUBIODAL AND SIMPLE SQUAMOUS ( WHY ? )

    4. FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY TUBES INCLUDE :

      1. DISTRIBUTION OF AIR
      2. EXCHANGE OF GASSES BETWEEN BLOOD AND AIR
      3. PASSAGE TO REMOVE WASTE GASSES

  3. LUNGS

    1. LEFT AND RIGHT LUNGS ARE SEPARATED BY THE MEDIASTINUM

    2. ENCLOSED BY THE DIAPHRAGM AND THORACIC CAVITY

    3. VISCERAL PLUERAL PERITONEUM IS ATTACHED TO THE OUTSIDE

    4. PARIETAL PLURAL LINES THE THORACIC CAVITY

    5. RIGHT LUNG HAS THREE LOBES :

      1. SUPERIOR
      2. MIDDLE
      3. INFERIOR

    6. THE LEFT LUNG HAS TWO :

      1. SUPERIOR
      2. INFERIOR

    7. EACH LOBE IS COMPOSED OF LOBULES THAT CONTAIN :

      ALVEOLI, BLOOD VESSELS, CONNECTIVE TISSUES

    8. INSPIRATION

      1. AIR FORCED INTO LUNG BY ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

      2. RESULTS FROM DECREASE IN INTRA ALVEOLAR PRESSURE

      3. WHEN DIAPHGRAM MOVES DOWN, A PARTIAL VACUUM CREATED

      4. THORACIC CAGE AT THE SAME TIME MOVES UP

      5. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FORCES AIR INTO BRONCHIAL TREE

      6. EXPANSION AIDED BY SURFACE TENSION THAT HOLDS THE PLUERAL MEMBRANE TOGETHER ( PARIETAL, VISCERAL )

      7. SURFACTANT REDUCES SURFACE TENSION TO PREVENT COLLAPSE OF THE ALVEOLI

    9. EXPIRATION

      1. ELASTIC RECOIL OF TISSUES AND SURFACE TENSION WITHIN THE ALVEOLI

      2. THORACIC CAGE PUSHED DOWNWARD, DIAPHGRAM UPWARD

    10. RESPIRATORY AIR VOLUMES

      1. AMOUNT OF AIR MOVING IN AND OUT DURING NORMAL BREATHING IS THE TIDAL VOLUME

      2. ADDITIONAL AIR THAT CAN BE INHALED IS THE INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME

      3. ADDITIONAL AIR THAT CAN BE EXPIRED IS THE EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME

      4. RESIDUAL LUNG IS THE AIR THAT REMAINS IN THE LUNG

      5. VITAL CAPACITY IS THE MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF AIR THAT CAN BE EXHALED AFTER TAKING THE DEEPEST BREATH POSSIBLE

      6. TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY IS ( VITAL + RESIDUAL )

      7. AIR IN ALVEOLAR DEAD SPACE IS NOT AVAILABLE

    11. ALVEOLAR VENTILATION

      1. MINUTE RESPIRATORY VOLUME :
        ( TIDAL VOLUME X BREATHING RATE )

      2. ALVEOLAR VENTILATION RATE :
        (( TIDAL VOLUME - DEAD SPACE AIR ) x RATE )

      3. ALVEOLAR VENTILATION RATE IS IMPORTANT IN THE GAS EXCHANGE BETWEEN ALVEOLAR AIR AND BLOOD

    SECTION 2 : CONTROL OF BREATHING

    1. RESPIRATORY CENTER - MEDULLA OBLONGATA AND PONS

      1. LOCATED IN THE MEDULLA AND PONS OF THE BRAIN STEM
      2. RESPIRATORY RYTHUM AREA INCLUDES TWO NEURON GROUPS

        1. DORSAL - BASIC BREATHING RYTHUM
        2. VENTRAL - FORCEFUL BREATHING

      3. PNUEMOTAXIC AREA REGULATES THE BREATHING RATE

    2. FACTORS THAT AFFECT BREATHING

      1. CHEMICAL, STRETCHING OF LUNGS, EMOTIONAL STATE

      2. CHEMOSENSITIVE AREAS ARE CONNECTED TO THE RESPIRATORY CENTER :

        1. CO2 + H20 CREATE CARBONIC ACID
        2. THIS RELEASES H+ IONS
        3. CHEMOSENSITIVE AREAS INFLUENCED BY H+
        4. STIMULATION INCREASES BREATHING RATE

      3. CHEMOSENSORS ARE FOUND :

        1. CAROTID AND AORTIC ARTERIES
        2. SENSE LOW O2 CONDITIONS
        3. INCREASE BREATHING RATE IF O2 IS LOW

      4. INFLATION REFLEX : PREVENTS OVER DISTENTION OF LUNG

      5. HYPERVENTILATION - CO2 DECREASES

    3. ALVEOLAR GAS EXCHANGE

      1. ALVEOLI:

        1. AIR SACS AT THE DISTAL END OF THE ALVEOLAR DUCT
        2. ALVEOLI MAY HAVE ALTERNATE PASSAGE WAYS INTO OTHER ALVEOLI

      2. RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE :

        1. ALVEOLAR AND CAPILLARY WALLS
        2. GAS EXCHANGE TAKES PLACE THROUGH THESE AREAS

      3. PARTIAL PRESSURE GAS LAWS :

        • CONCENTRATION OF A GAS IN A MIXTURE
        • GASSES DIFFUSE FROM HIGH TO LOW PRESSURE
        • CO2 0- O2 EXCHANGE IN THE ALVEOLI

        IV. TRANSPORT OF GASSES

        1. O2 COMBINED WITH HEMOGLOBIN

        2. RESULTS IN OXYHEMOGLOBIN - UNSTABLE - RELEASES O2 IN LOW PO AREAS

        3. MORE O2 RELEASED WHEN :

          1. HIGHER TEMPERATURE

          2. BLOOD BECOMES MORE ACIDIC

          3. CO2 LEVEL INCREASES

        4. CARBON MONOXIDE ( CO )

          • CO FORMS AS A RESULT OF FUEL COMBUSTION

          • COMBINES WITH HEMOGLOBIN EASILY - MORE STABLE

          • TOXIC - HEMOGLOBIN CANT TRANSPORT O2

        5. CARBON DIOXIDE ( CO2 )

          • CARRIED EITHER WITH HEMOGLOBIN OR BICARBONATE ION

          • MOST TRANSPORTED AS BICARBONATE IONS

          • CARBONIC ANHYDRASE (ENZYME ) SPEEDS REACTIONS OF WATER AND CO2 TO FORM CARBONIC ACID

          • CARBONIC ACID RELEASES H+ AND BICARBONATE IONS

        6. O2 USE IN THE BODY

          • CELLUAR RESPIRATION IN THE MITOCHONDRIA

          • ESSENTIAL IN KREBS CYCLE AND E.T.S.