Normal - Variation around a mean
Disease - A form of life beyond normal
Etiology - Reason for disease state
Pathogenesis - Development of disease
Extrinsic Factors - (factors outside the body)
Trauma - Injury
Organisms - Bacteria, Virus, Mycoplasmas
Intrinsic Factors (Inside the body)
Previous Illness -
Genetic Inheritance -
Cell Structure -
Somatic Death - Death of an entire individual
Rigor Mortis - stiffness of muscle
Algor Mortis - cooling of the body
livor Mortis - postmortem lividity, the settling of blood to
the pull of gravity
Body Response to Injury
Redness - Rubor
Heat - Calor
Pain - Dolor
Swelling - tumor the mixture of fluid and cells is
Rough EndoPlasmic Reticulum
Smooth EndoPlasmic Reticulum
Plasmalemma (cell membrane)
Coagulative Necrosis - Cell maintains it's outline, and
tissue will remain.
Liquefactive Necrosis - Necrotic tissue will liquify
(Neurons, Brain cells)
Caseous Necrosis - Cell disintegrate but a fin e outline of
the cell remains for months or years.
Gangrene - coagulative necrosis due to a lack of blood
1. Dry Gangrene (External)
2. Wet Gangrene (Internal)
Fat (Pancreatic) Necrosis - Enzymes form Fatty acids, due
primarily to a rupture of pancreatic duct. Hydrolytic
Enzymes (lipases) lyse lipids of adipose tissue. These are
combined with calcium this produces deposits of soap.
Necrotic tissue leaks enzymes into the blood stream.
(CPK) creatine Phosphokinase
(LDH) lactic dehydrogenase
(GOT) glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
Cellular Injury A Death
(Modes of cellular injury)
1. Deficiency of O2
3. Living Infectious Agents
4. Chemical Agents
Sublethal injury of Cells -
Degenerative Changes -
1. Affect the Cytoplasm
2. Nucleus not severely affected
Form of Degeneration
1. Excess water building (cellular swell)
2. Accumulation of lipid
3. Reduction of mass (shrink) atrophy
Necrosis - Cell Death
Pyknosis - Death of the Nucleus
Pyknotic - Nuclei that are dead
Karyolysis - Nucleus loses staining ability
Bilirubin - Non iron containing moiety that is carried to the
liver. Where it is secreted as part of the
Leukocyte - (lympocyte) - Presented in exudates in small
numbers, until the Inflammation is chronic.
Non Cellular Exudates
Serous - contains protein leaked by permeable blood vessels -
Transudates - Collection of fluid in body cavities, protein
poor, cell poor
Fibrinous - When the Protein contains abundant fibrinogen
Mucinous Catarrhal - Forms on the surface of mucous
Lymphatic System - Where an area is inflamed there is an
increase in the amount of lymph draining
from an area.
Lymphangitis - Inflammations of a lymphatic vessel
Lymphadenitis - where a lymph node becomes inflamed.
Chemotaxis - Chemical signals that direct orientation of
movement of Leukocytes.
Granular - Neutrophils - 1st to appear
Smooth - monocytes -
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils - PMN
1st to appear after inflammation.
Half Life - 6 hours
5000 @ cubic millimeter
can be 100X this amount in reserve
produced in bone morrow.
Blood and Immunity
Red cells - erythrocytes
White cells - Leukocytes
A. Monomorphonuclear series -
Monocytes - 6% - macrophage
Lymphocytes - 25% - microphage (bacteria, virus)
B. Polymorphonuclear series -
Neutrophils - 65% - microphage
eosinophils (2%) - Increase with allergies
platlets - clotting of blood
Eosinophil - appears in relatively small numbers -congregate
at the sites of allergic reaction.
Basophil - contains enzymes, heparin, histamine are released
in certain immunologic reaction.
Monocytes - 3-4 times longer life than granular leukocytes
are neutrophils but in smaller numbers - as
exudate ages the numbers may increase.
the monocytes in circulating blood in a macro phage.
(RES) Reticuloendothelial System
Macrophage system processes hemoglobin of red blood cells
that have ended their life span
Kupfer - Population of less mobile cells lining the cells in
blood channels in the spleen, liver, bone marrow.
Purulent - formed in response to bacterial infection.
Humoral Immune Response - is effected by immunoglobulins
(gamma globulins) of the blood are
made by the host in response to
Cell medicated reaction - Carried out by lympocytes which
have proliferated in response to
introduction of the antigen
lymphocytes tend to concentrate in certain tissues (lymphoid
tissues) make a coordinated system
The System Includes
1. Lymph Nodes
4. Lymphoid Tissue
5. Bone Marrow
Spleen - large mass of lymphoid and reticuloendothial cells.
Interposed in the course of the blood stream.
Thymus - Lymphoid tissue located in the thorax anterior to
the upper part of the heart and great vessels
consist of a reticular frame work thymus tends to
atrophy with age.
T Lymphocytes - Thymus dependent
B Lymphocytes - Thymus independent
IGg Group - are important in resistance to infection.
IGm - are found in the circulating fluids, and are the first
to be Synthesized early in antibody response.
IGa - are produced along surfaces and in the lymphoid tissue
IGe - Produced in lymphoid tissue and secreted into
fluid and readily attach to most cells or tissue
basophils around the body.
Mouth - teeth
Liver - produces bile, emulsifies fat destroys injured
Gall Bladder - stores bile
Duct - connects to small Intestine
Nutrient Where digested Enzymes
Starch Mouth - SM. I. Ptyalin
Small I. Amylase
Maltose S.I. Maltose
Lactose S.I. Lactose
Sucrose S.I. Sucrose
Lipids S.I. Lipase
S.I. Bile(not enzyme)
Protein STOMACH Pepsin - Rennin
S.I. - trypsin
Herbivorous - eat plants
Carnivorous - eat meat
Omnivorous - eat both plants and animals
Alimentary Canal - digestive tract
Food - chewed - pharynx(throat) - epiglottis - trachea(trap
door) - esophagus - stomach secretes HCL and pepsin
Stomach roses 1/2 million cells @ minute all cells are
replaced every 3 days.
Ulcers can occur where there is not enough mucus secreted.
Small Intestine - Duodenum - jejunum - Ilium - Digestion
takes place in duodenum.
Sodium Bicarbonate is secreted Enzymes from pancreas are
secreted and from cells in the duodenum.
Colon - water removed
vitamin K absorbed (Bacteriodes Frog.)
E COLI - complete with pathogenic bacteria
E COLI - can cause cystitis of the bladder.
Staphlycoccus Aureus - invade a wound.
Ruminants - Bacteria Important
Abomasum -True stomach
Reticulum - (Honey Comb)
Rumen - a red bacterial activity
Grains go directly to the reticulum
Hay and Forge:
In digestion compartment of ruminant
1 billion bacteria - Break down
1 million protozoa - cellulose
to acetate, propionate, butyrate
Large amounts of methane gas are produced also CO2
18% of the ruminants food calories end up as methane.
Prehension - harvest and convey food to the mouth
Mastication - chewing
Cow eats large amounts, rest and regurgitates a bolus of
material to the mouth.
Function of Mammalian Liver
Regulation of blood glucose
Removal of nitrogen from excess amino acids and production of
urea production of plasma proteins for the blood.
Destruction of old R.B.C.
Detoxification of poisonous substance
Heart - 4 chambered muscular organ
Right and left Atrium
Right and left Ventricle
Arteries - large vessles that carry blood away from the heart
- thick walled
- contains elastic fibers
- layers of involuntary muscles
largest artery - Aorta
Veins - Carry blood to the heart
1. thinner walls
2. less elastic fiber and muscular tissue
Valves along the way prevent blood from backing up.
Largest vein - Vena Cava
Smallest Arteries (arterioles)
Smallest veins (venules)
Food, O2, diffuse out of the capillary walls into the (ICF)
(Inter Cellular Fluid)
BY reverse process waste leaves by the same way.
Blood in vena cava
blood enters right atrium
blood forced into right ventricle
sends blood to pulmonary artery
Blood enters capillaries around air sacs -
O2 absorbed - CO2 excreted
(bright red) Pulmonary Vein - to heart
pumps blood to the aorta
Takes less than 20 seconds
Circuit Of Blood
1. Pulmonary Circulation
2. Systemic Circulation
3. Portal Circulation
Lymph and Lymph Circulation
Cells of body are bathed by fluid
Largly water with small amounts of dissolved nutrients
that will be used by cells, wastes, secretions
Also contains W.B.C. that pass through the capillaries.
Lymph Nodes - Manufacture Certain
During infection they swell
Hemogram RBC - red blood cells
WBC - white blood cells
HB - hemoglobin
PCU - packed cell volume
Neutrophils - Pus forming infection
Lymphcytes - End stages of acute infection
Eosinophils - Allergic reaction or parasitic
Abnormal or immature - disease of bone marrow