Normal - Variation around a mean

Disease - A form of life beyond normal

Etiology - Reason for disease state

Pathogenesis - Development of disease

 

 

DISEASE DIAGNOSIS

 

Extrinsic Factors - (factors outside the body)

 

Trauma - Injury

Radiation -

Temperature -

Chemicals -

Organisms - Bacteria, Virus, Mycoplasmas

 

Intrinsic Factors (Inside the body)

 

Age -

Sex -

Previous Illness -

Genetic Inheritance -

 

Cell Structure -

 

(Nucleus)

 

Nucleoplasm

Nucleic Acids

Nucleolus

Nuclear Membrane

 

Somatic Death - Death of an entire individual

 

 

Rigor Mortis - stiffness of muscle

 

Algor Mortis - cooling of the body

 

livor Mortis - postmortem lividity, the settling of blood to

the pull of gravity

 

 

Body Response to Injury

 

Redness - Rubor

Heat - Calor

Pain - Dolor

Swelling - tumor the mixture of fluid and cells is

called (exudate)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cell Structure

 

(Extra Nuclear)

 

Cytoplasm

Mitochondria

Ribosomes

Rough EndoPlasmic Reticulum

Smooth EndoPlasmic Reticulum

Golgi Bodies

Plasmalemma (cell membrane)

 

 

 

Coagulative Necrosis - Cell maintains it's outline, and

tissue will remain.

 

Liquefactive Necrosis - Necrotic tissue will liquify

(Neurons, Brain cells)

 

Caseous Necrosis - Cell disintegrate but a fin e outline of

the cell remains for months or years.

 

Gangrene - coagulative necrosis due to a lack of blood

 

2 types

1. Dry Gangrene (External)

2. Wet Gangrene (Internal)

 

 

Fat (Pancreatic) Necrosis - Enzymes form Fatty acids, due

primarily to a rupture of pancreatic duct. Hydrolytic

Enzymes (lipases) lyse lipids of adipose tissue. These are

combined with calcium this produces deposits of soap.

 

Necrotic tissue leaks enzymes into the blood stream.

 

 

 

Blood Analysis

 

(CPK) creatine Phosphokinase

 

(LDH) lactic dehydrogenase

 

(GOT) glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase

 

 

Cellular Injury A Death

 

(Modes of cellular injury)

 

1. Deficiency of O2

2. Physical

3. Living Infectious Agents

4. Chemical Agents

 

Sublethal injury of Cells -

 

Degenerative Changes -

 

1. Affect the Cytoplasm

2. Nucleus not severely affected

 

Form of Degeneration

 

1. Excess water building (cellular swell)

2. Accumulation of lipid

3. Reduction of mass (shrink) atrophy

 

Cellular Death

 

Necrosis - Cell Death

Pyknosis - Death of the Nucleus

Pyknotic - Nuclei that are dead

Karyolysis - Nucleus loses staining ability

 

 

Bilirubin - Non iron containing moiety that is carried to the

liver. Where it is secreted as part of the

bile.

 

Leukocyte - (lympocyte) - Presented in exudates in small

numbers, until the Inflammation is chronic.

 

 

Non Cellular Exudates

 

Serous - contains protein leaked by permeable blood vessels -

Blister Fluid

 

Transudates - Collection of fluid in body cavities, protein

poor, cell poor

Fibrinous - When the Protein contains abundant fibrinogen

 

Mucinous Catarrhal - Forms on the surface of mucous

membranes.

 

Lymphatic System - Where an area is inflamed there is an

increase in the amount of lymph draining

from an area.

 

Lymphangitis - Inflammations of a lymphatic vessel

 

Lymphadenitis - where a lymph node becomes inflamed.

 

 

Chemotaxis - Chemical signals that direct orientation of

movement of Leukocytes.

 

Leukocytes

 

Granular - Neutrophils - 1st to appear

eosinophils -

basophils -

 

Smooth - monocytes -

Lymphocytes -

 

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils - PMN

1st to appear after inflammation.

 

Half Life - 6 hours

5000 @ cubic millimeter

can be 100X this amount in reserve

produced in bone morrow.

 

 

 

 

Blood and Immunity

 

BLOOD

Red cells - erythrocytes

No nucleus

 

White cells - Leukocytes

 

 

A. Monomorphonuclear series -

 

Monocytes - 6% - macrophage

Lymphocytes - 25% - microphage (bacteria, virus)

Produced antibodies

 

 

 

B. Polymorphonuclear series -

 

Neutrophils - 65% - microphage

eosinophils (2%) - Increase with allergies

and parasites.

 

 

platlets - clotting of blood

 

Eosinophil - appears in relatively small numbers -congregate

at the sites of allergic reaction.

 

Basophil - contains enzymes, heparin, histamine are released

in certain immunologic reaction.

 

Monocytes - 3-4 times longer life than granular leukocytes

are neutrophils but in smaller numbers - as

exudate ages the numbers may increase.

 

the monocytes in circulating blood in a macro phage.

 

(RES) Reticuloendothelial System

Macrophage system processes hemoglobin of red blood cells

that have ended their life span

 

Kupfer - Population of less mobile cells lining the cells in

blood channels in the spleen, liver, bone marrow.

 

 

 

CELLULAR EXUDATES

 

 

Purulent - formed in response to bacterial infection.

 

 

IMMUNOLOGICAL REACTION

 

Humoral Immune Response - is effected by immunoglobulins

(gamma globulins) of the blood are

made by the host in response to

antigenic material.

 

Cell medicated reaction - Carried out by lympocytes which

have proliferated in response to

introduction of the antigen

(without immunoglobulins)

 

lymphocytes tend to concentrate in certain tissues (lymphoid

tissues) make a coordinated system

 

 

 

 

The System Includes

 

1. Lymph Nodes

2. Spleen

3. Thymus

4. Lymphoid Tissue

5. Bone Marrow

 

 

Spleen - large mass of lymphoid and reticuloendothial cells.

Interposed in the course of the blood stream.

 

Thymus - Lymphoid tissue located in the thorax anterior to

the upper part of the heart and great vessels

consist of a reticular frame work thymus tends to

atrophy with age.

 

T Lymphocytes - Thymus dependent

B Lymphocytes - Thymus independent

 

 

IMMUNOGLOBULIN MOLECULES

 

 

IGg Group - are important in resistance to infection.

 

IGm - are found in the circulating fluids, and are the first

to be Synthesized early in antibody response.

 

IGa - are produced along surfaces and in the lymphoid tissue

 

IGe - Produced in lymphoid tissue and secreted into

fluid and readily attach to most cells or tissue

basophils around the body.

 

 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

 

Mouth - teeth

Esophagus

Stomach

Small Intestine

1. Duodenum

2. Jejunum

3. Ileum

4. Colon

5. Anus

 

Liver - produces bile, emulsifies fat destroys injured

R.B.C.

 

Gall Bladder - stores bile

 

Duct - connects to small Intestine

 

 

 

Nutrient Where digested Enzymes

 

Starch Mouth - SM. I. Ptyalin

Small I. Amylase

_________________________________________________________

 

Maltose S.I. Maltose

Lactose S.I. Lactose

Sucrose S.I. Sucrose

Lipids S.I. Lipase

S.I. Bile(not enzyme)

Protein STOMACH Pepsin - Rennin

S.I. - trypsin

 

 

 

Herbivorous - eat plants

Carnivorous - eat meat

Omnivorous - eat both plants and animals

 

Alimentary Canal - digestive tract

 

Food - chewed - pharynx(throat) - epiglottis - trachea(trap

door) - esophagus - stomach secretes HCL and pepsin

 

Stomach roses 1/2 million cells @ minute all cells are

replaced every 3 days.

 

Ulcers can occur where there is not enough mucus secreted.

 

Small Intestine - Duodenum - jejunum - Ilium - Digestion

takes place in duodenum.

 

Sodium Bicarbonate is secreted Enzymes from pancreas are

secreted and from cells in the duodenum.

 

Colon - water removed

vitamin K absorbed (Bacteriodes Frog.)

 

E COLI - complete with pathogenic bacteria

E COLI - can cause cystitis of the bladder.

 

Staphlycoccus Aureus - invade a wound.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symbiotic Bacteria

 

Ruminants - Bacteria Important

 

Omasum -

 

Abomasum -True stomach

 

Reticulum - (Honey Comb)

Rumen - a red bacterial activity

 

 

Grains go directly to the reticulum

 

Hay and Forge:

 

In digestion compartment of ruminant

 

1 billion bacteria - Break down

1 million protozoa - cellulose

 

to acetate, propionate, butyrate

 

 

Large amounts of methane gas are produced also CO2

 

18% of the ruminants food calories end up as methane.

 

Prehension - harvest and convey food to the mouth

 

Mastication - chewing

 

Cow eats large amounts, rest and regurgitates a bolus of

material to the mouth.

 

 

 

Function of Mammalian Liver

 

Regulation of blood glucose

 

Removal of nitrogen from excess amino acids and production of

urea production of plasma proteins for the blood.

 

Destruction of old R.B.C.

 

Detoxification of poisonous substance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Circulation

 

Heart - 4 chambered muscular organ

 

Right and left Atrium

Right and left Ventricle

 

Arteries - large vessles that carry blood away from the heart

 

- thick walled

- contains elastic fibers

- layers of involuntary muscles

 

largest artery - Aorta

Veins - Carry blood to the heart

 

1. thinner walls

2. less elastic fiber and muscular tissue

 

Valves along the way prevent blood from backing up.

 

Largest vein - Vena Cava

 

Capillaries -

Smallest Arteries (arterioles)

Smallest veins (venules)

 

Food, O2, diffuse out of the capillary walls into the (ICF)

(Inter Cellular Fluid)

 

BY reverse process waste leaves by the same way.

 

 

Circulatory Route

 

Blood in vena cava

 

blood enters right atrium

contraction

blood forced into right ventricle

contract

sends blood to pulmonary artery

 

Blood enters capillaries around air sacs -

O2 absorbed - CO2 excreted

 

(bright red) Pulmonary Vein - to heart

left atrium

contracts

left ventricle

 

pumps blood to the aorta

 

Takes less than 20 seconds

 

 

Circuit Of Blood

 

1. Pulmonary Circulation

 

2. Systemic Circulation

 

3. Portal Circulation

 

 

Lymph and Lymph Circulation

 

Cells of body are bathed by fluid

 

Largly water with small amounts of dissolved nutrients

that will be used by cells, wastes, secretions

 

 

Also contains W.B.C. that pass through the capillaries.

 

Lymph Nodes - Manufacture Certain

W.B.C.

Filter

During infection they swell

 

 

Hemogram RBC - red blood cells

WBC - white blood cells

HB - hemoglobin

PCU - packed cell volume

 

 

Increase

 

Neutrophils - Pus forming infection

Anthrax

Encephalitis

Meningitis

 

 

Lymphcytes - End stages of acute infection

Monocytes -

 

 

Eosinophils - Allergic reaction or parasitic

 

Abnormal or immature - disease of bone marrow

Spleen

Lymph Nodes

Liver

Leukemia