1. CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    1. LYMPHATIC CAPALLARIES

      1. MICROSCOPIC CLOSED ENDED TUBULES THAT EXTENT INTO INTERSTITAL SPACES

      2. THEY RECIEVE LYMPH THROUGH THIN WALLS

      3. LACTEALS ARE LYMPHATIC CAPALLARIES IN SMALL INTESTINE

    2. LYMPHATIC VESSELS

      1. FORMED BY MERGING LYMPHATIC CAPALLARIES

      2. WALLS SIMILAR TO VEINS WITH VALVES TO PREVENT BACKFLOW

      3. LEAD TO NODES - THEN INTO TRUNKS

    3. LYMPHATIC TRUNKS

      1. DRAIN LYMPH FROM BODY REGIONS

      2. TRUNKS LEAD INTO 2 COLLECTING DUCTS IN THE THORAX

      3. COLLECTING DUCTS JOIN SUBCLAVIAN VEINS

  2. TISSUE FLUID AND LYMPH

    1. TISSUE FLUID FORMATION

      1. FLUID ORIGINATES FROM BLOOD PLASMA

      2. CONTAINS WATER, DISSOLVED SUBSTANCES

      3. GENERALLY LACKS PROTEIN - SMALL PROTEIN MAY LEAK THROUGH

      4. AS PROTEIN CONTENT OF BODY FLUID INCREASES, SO DOES OSMOTIC PRESSURE

    2. LYMPH FORMATION

      1. RISE IN OSMOTIC PRESSURE CAUSES SOME WATER NOT TO BE RETURNED TO BLOOD CAPALLARIES

      2. INCREASING INTERSTITAL PRESSURE FORCES FLIUDS INTO LYMPH CAPILLARIES.

      3. THIS FLUID BECOMES LYMPH

    3. FUNCTION OF LYMPH

      1. RETURNS PROTEIN TO BLOOD STREAM

      2. TRANSPORT MATERIALS TO LYMPH NODES

  3. MOVEMENT OF LYMPH

    1. LYMPHATIC FLOW

      1. LYMPH IS UNDER LOW PRESSURE

      2. FORCES THAT MOVE LYMPH INCLUDE :

        1. SKELETAL MUSCLE

        2. LOW PRESSURE IN THORAX

        3. OTHER

    2. OBSTRUCTION OF LYMPH

      1. INTERFERENCE OF LYMPH FLOW CAUSES EDEMA

      2. SURGERY MAY ALSO OBSTRUCT FLOW ( EDEMA )

  4. LYMPH NODES

    1. STRUCTURE OF NODES

      1. NODES CONTAIN BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES, EFFERENT AND AFFERENT LYMPHATIC VESSELS

      2. ENCLOSED IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT DIVIDES THEM INTO NODULES

      3. NODULES CONTAIN LYMPOCYTES, MACROPHAGES, AREAS OF LYMPH FLOW

    2. LOCATION OF LYMPH NODES

      1. OCCUR IN GROUPS OR CHAINS

      2. OCCUR PRIMARILY IN THE FOLLOWING REGIONS :

        1. CERVICAL

        2. AXILLARY

        3. INGUINAL

        4. PELVIC, ABDOMINAL, THORACIC CAVITIES

      3. FUNCTION OF NODES

        1. CENTER FOR PRODUCTION OF LYMPOCYTES

        2. CONTAIN MACROPHAGES TO REMOVE FOREIGN MATERIALS

  5. SPLEEN AND THYMUS

    1. THYMUS

      1. SOFT ORGAN IN THE MEDIASTINUM

      2. DECREASES IN SIZE AFTER PUBERTY

      3. COMPOSED OF LYMPHATIC TISSUE DIVIDED INTO LOBULES

      4. LOBULES CONTAIN LYMPOCYTES FROM BONE MARROW

      5. SOME LYMPOCYTES LEAVE THYMUS AND BECOME T LYMPOCYTES

      6. T LYMPOCYTES ARE INVOLVED IN CELLUAR IMMUNE RESPONSE

    2. SPLEEN

      1. LOCATED IN UPPER LEFT PORTION OF ABDOMINAL CAVITY

      2. RESEMBLES A LARGE LYMPH NODE

      3. SPACES IN LOBULES ARE BLOOD FILLED

      4. ACTS AS A BLOOD RESERVE

      5. CONTAINS MACROPHAGES, LYMPOCYTES

      6. THESE FILTER FOREIGN PARTICLES AND DESTROY OLD RBC

      IMMUNITY

      T LYMPOCYTES - CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY

    3. ATTACK ANTIGENS DIRECTLY

    4. RELEASE LYMPOKINES THAT ATTRACT PHAGOCYTES

    5. STIMULATE ANTIBODY FORMATION

    6. SECRETE INTERFERON - PREVENTS VIRAL REPRODUCTION

    7. SECRETES TOXINS AND GROWTH REGULATORS

      B LYMPOCYTES - ANTIBODY ( HUMORAL ) IMMUNITY

    8. PRODUCE ANTIBODIES

    9. ANTIBODIES ARE SPECIFIC AGAINST ANTIGENS

    10. IMMUNOGLOBULINS ACT AS ANTIBODIES

      NORMAL IMMUNE ATTACK UTILIZES BOTH THE T AND B LYMPOCYTES