Lecture Notes Menu Cardiovascular System


  1. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM:

    1. THE BLOOD, HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS MAKE UP THE C.V. SYSTEM

      1. DESIGNED TO TRANSPORT MATERIALS

      2. BLOOD CONTAINS NUTRIENTS AND OXYGEN REQUIRED BY CELLS

      3. MUST REACH ALL PARTS OF THE BODY AND ALL CELLS

      4. INTERSTITIAL FLUID BATH ALL CELLS, THIS IS SERVICED BY BLOOD AND LYMPH.

      5. BLOOD CARRIES THE FOLLOWING:

        1. 02 FROM LUNGS

        2. HORMONES FROM ENDOCRINE GLANDS

        3. NUTRIENTS FROM G.I. TRACT

        4. ENZYMES FROM OTHER ARES OF THE BODY

        5. VARIOUS CHEMICALS

      6. BLOOD ALSO TRANSPORTS WASTES TO THE LUNGS, KIDNEYS, AND SWEAT GLANDS.

      7. SOME SUBSTANCES ARE PASSED TO THE LIVER BEFORE EXCRETION

      8. OTHER FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD INCLUDE:

      1. REGULATE pH
      2. BODY TEMPERATURE
      3. PROTECTS BLOOD LOSS BY CLOTTING
      4. DESTROYS ANTIGENS BY PHAGOCYTOSIS

    2. THE FORMED ELEMENTS

      1. MONOMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES ( AGRANULAR )
        1. MONOCYTES
        2. LYMPHOCYTES

      2. POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES ( GRANULAR )
        1. NEUTROPHILS
        2. EOSINOPHILS
        3. BASOPHILS

      3. ERYTHROCYTES

      4. THROMBOCYTES




        Appendix to Part C: Origin of the Formed Elements

        Hemopoesis: Blood Cell Manufacture

        1. Occurs in 2 types of tissues:

          a.1 myeloid tissue found in red marrow
          b.1 Iymphoid tissue

        2. Red marrow found in ( humerus, femur, ribs, sternum, diploe of cranium.

        3. Lymphoid tissue found in spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes, thymus.

        4. The granular leukocytes are produced in the myeloid tissues as well as the erythrocytes and platelets.

        5. The monocytes are produced in the spleen and red marrow.

        6. The lymphocytes are produced in the lymphoid tissues.

        Plasma:

        1. 55% of blood is plasma, 45% consists of cells.

        2. Plasma is 90% water, 7-9% protein plus assorted salts, vitamins, glucose, gasses, hormones, etc.

        3. Three types of proteins are present:

          a.1 Albumin - produced by liver - provides viscosity -needed for blood pressure.

          b.1 Globulins - Alpha, beta, gamma
          b.2 Alpha and Beta transport fats and fat sol. vitamins.
          b.3 Gamma are antibodies produced by lymphocytes

          c.1 Fibrinogen, assists in clotting
          c.2 Blood plasma minus fibrinogen is serum


    3. ORIGIN OF THE FORMED ELEMENTS

      1. FORMED IN RED MARROW BY A PROCESS CALLED HEMOPOESIS

      2. TAKES PLACE IN HUMERUS, FEMUR, TERNUM, RIBS, VERTEBRAE, PELVIS, LYMPH TISSUES

      3. RBC, PLATELETS AND GRANULAR LEUKOCYTES ARE PRODUCED IN RED MARROW

      4. AGRANULAR LEUKOCYTES ARISE FROM RED MARROW, SPLEEN, TONSILS, AND LYMPH NODES.

      5. ALL CELLS ORIGINATE FROM HEMOCYTOBLASTS

      D. STRUCTURE OF THE FORMED ELEMENTS:

      1. ERYTHROCYTES:

        1. 8 MICROMETERS IN DIAMETER

        2. SIMPLE STRUCTURE:

          1. NO ORGANELLES

          2. VERY LITTLE METABOLISM

          3. CAN'T DIVIDE

          4. CONSISTS OF A MEMBRANE AND HEMOGLOBIN

          5. POSSESS ANAEROBIC ATP SYNTHESIS

          6. HAVE A GREAT CAPACITY TO CARRY 02

        3. STRUCTURE OF HEMOGLOBIN

          1. FOUR PROTEINS CALLED GLOBIN

          2. FOUR NON PROTEINS CALLED HEME

          3. EACH HEME ATTACHED TO A GLOBIN

        4. FUNCTION OF HEMOGLOBIN:

          1. AS CELLS PASS THROUGH THE LUNG, EACH IRON COMPONENT OF HEMOGLOBIN ATTACHES TO IT A MOLECULE OF 02.

          2. THIS FORMS OXYHEMOGLOBIN

          3. THIS IS TRANSFERRED TO OTHER BODY CELLS

          4. AT CELLS THE 02 IS RELEASED

          5. THE GLOBIN PART ATTACHES TO C02

          6. C02 TRANSPORTED BACK TO LUNGS

          7. PROCESS WORKS BY PARTIAL GAS PRESSURE

          8. MOST C02 CARRIED BY BLOOD PLASMA

        5. FACTS:

          1. LIFE SPAN 120 DAYS

          2. OLD CELLS ARE PHAGOCYTIZED BY MACROPHAGES IN SPLEEN, LIVER AND BONE MARROW

          3. HEMOGLOBIN IS RECYCLED

          4. GLOBIN SPLIT INTO AMINO ACIDS

          5. HEME - IRON AND BILIVERDIN

          6. IRON STORED IN LIVER IN 2 FORMS:
              FERRITIN: IRON - PROTEIN
              HEMOSIDERIN: VERY INSOLUBLE

          7. IRON TRANSPORTED IN THE BLOOD BY TRANSFERRIN

          8. CARRIES IRON TO BONE MARROW - RBC PRODUCTION

          9. NON IRON PORTION CONVERTED TO:
              BILIVERDIN - GREEN
              BILIRUBIN - RED COLOR
              EXCRETED IN BILE

          10. IN COLON, BACTERIA CONVERT BILIRUBIN INTO UROBILINOGEN

          11. ELIMINATED AS A BROWN PIGMENT CALLED STERCOBILIN

        6. PRODUCTION ( ERYHTROPOIESIS )
          1. OCCURS IN RED MARROW

          2. PRODUCTION - DESTRUCTION USUALLY EQUAL

          3. NUMBERS - REFER TO BOOK

          4. PRODUCED AT ABOUT 1 - 2 MILLION PER SECOND

          5. HOMEOSTATIC MECHANISM OF PRODUCTION CONTROL

            1. REDUCED 02 SUPPLY - HYPOXIA

            2. IF KIDNEY OR LIVER DEFICIENT THEY RELEASE - RENAL ERYTHROPOIETIC FACTOR ( REF )

            3. REF CONVERTED TO ERYTHROPOIETIN

            4. THIS TRAVELS TO MARROW TO STIMULATE PRODUCTION

          6. IRON, PROTEIN, FOLIC ACID, B12 MUST BE CONSUMED

          7. INTRINSIC FACTOR IN STOMACH ALLOWS B12 TO BE ABSORBED

          8. ERYTHROPOIESIS RATE IS MEASURED BY RETICULOCYTE COUNT

          9. PERCENT IN BLOOD SAMPLE SHOULD BE .5 TO 1.5%

          10. HEMATOCRIT PERCENT OF BLOOD MADE UP OF RBC (PCV)

              MALES 40 - 54
              FEMALES 38 - 46

        7. LEUKOCYTES

          1. POSSESS NUCLEI AND HAVE NO HEMOGLOBIN

          2. TWO MAJOR GROUPS: GRANULAR, AGRANULAR

          3. WBC HAVE HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS:

            UNIQUE FOR EACH PERSON - EXCEPT ID TWINS

          4. FUNCTIONS

              NEUTROPHIL:
                PHAGOCYTE
                FIRST TO RESPOND TO BACTERIAL INFECTION
                RELEASE ENZYME LYSOZYME

              MONOCYTE:
                PHAGOCYTE
                TAKE LONGER TO REACH INFECTION
                FOUND IN LARGE NUMBERS AT INFECTION SITE
                CLEAN UP CELLULAR DEBRIS

              EOSINOPHILS:
                ALLERGIC REACTIONS
                RELEASE HISTAMINASE - COUNTERS INFLAMMATION
                PARASITIC WORMS
                ANTIGEN- ANTIBODY COMPLEXES

              BASOPHILS:
                ALLERGIC REACTIONS
                IN TISSUES KNOWN AS MAST CELLS
                RELEASE HEPARIN, HISTAMINE, SEROTONIN

              ANTIBODY PRODUCTION: PROTEINS THAT INACTIVATE ANTIGENS

              ANTIGENS IS A PROTEIN THAT CAN CAUSE AN IMMUNE RESPONSE

              ANTIGEN MAKE UP THE CELL STRUCTURE OF VIRUS AND BACTERIA

              TOXINS RELEASED BY BACTERIA ARE ANTIGENS