1. Development of the Brain

    1. brain structure reflects the way it was formed

    2. brain develops from a tube with 3 cavities : forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain.

    3. the cavities persist as ventricles

  2. Structure of the Cerebrum

    1. cerebrum consists of two hemispheres

    2. surface is marked by ridges and grooves as a result of rapid nerve growth

    3. cerebral cortex is a thin layer of gray matter near the surface

    4. white matter consists of myelinated nerve fibers that interconnect neurons within the CNS and the rest of body.

    5. basal ganglia are clusters of gray matter in the white matter.

  3. Functions of the Cerebrum

    1. cerebrum is concerned with higher brain function

    2. cerebral cortex is divided into sensory, motor, and association areas.

    3. primary motor region lies in the frontal lobes near central sulcus and is aided by other areas in the frontal lobe that controls special motor functions.

    4. areas responsible for interpreting sensory impulses from skin are located in the parietal lobes near central sulci; other specialized sensory areas are found in temporal and occipital lobes.

    5. association areas analyze and interpret sensory impulses that are involved in memory, reasoning, verbalizing, judgement, and emotions.

  4. Basal Ganglia

    1. basal ganglia are masses of gray matter located deep in the cerebral hemisphere

    2. function as relay stations for motor impulses that originate in the motor cortex and aid in control of motor activities

  5. Ventricles

    1. ventricles are interconnected cavities within the brain

    2. spaces are filled with CSF

    3. CSF circulates through the ventricles and is reabsorbed into the blood in the dural sinuses.

  6. Brain Stem

    1. brain stem extends from the base of the cerebrum to the spinal cord.

    2. brain stem consists of the diencephalon, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata.

    3. diencephalon consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus and the epithalamus.

    4. limbic system functions to produce emotional feelings and to modify behavior

    5. the midbrain contains reflex centers associated with eye and head movements

    6. pons relay area transmits impulses between cerebrum and other parts of the nervous system, and contains centers that assist in regulation of respiration.

    7. the medulla oblongata transmits all ascending and descending impulses and contains several vital and non vital reflex areas.

    8. the reticular formation filters incoming impulses, arousing the cerebral cortex into wakefulness whenever significant impulses are received.

    9. normal sleep results from decreased activity of reticular formation

  7. Cerebellum

    1. cerebellum consists of two hemispheres connected by the vermis

    2. composed of white matter surrounded by a thin cortex of gray matter

    3. cerebellum functions primarily as a reflex center in coordination of skeletal muscle activity and maintains equilibrium.

Region Description
diencephalon major anatomic region of brain hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus
mesencephalon corpora quadrigemina : visual, auditory reflexes
cerebral penducles : posture, movement
metencephalon pons, cerebellum
myelencephalon medulla oblongata