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Chapter 5: Histology


  1. EPITHELIAL TISSUES

    1. EPITHELIAL TISSUE COVERS ALL FREE BODY SUFRACES
    2. MAJOR TISSUE OF GLANDS
    3. ANCHORED TO CONNECTIVE TESSUE BY BASEMENT MEMBRANE
    4. LACKS BLOOD VESSELS
    5. REPLACED CONTINOUSLY (STOMACHE, INTESTINE, SKIN)
    6. FUNCTIONS: PROTECTION, SECRETION, ABSORPTION, EXCRETION, SENSORY RECEPTION

  2. TYPES OF EPITHELIAL TISSUES

    1. SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

      1. SINGLE THIN LAYER OF FLATTENED CELLS
      2. SUBSTANCES PASS THROUGH EASILY
      3. FUNCTION IN LUNG AS CO2, O2 EXCHANGE
      4. LINES BLOOD VESSELS
      5. LINES LYMPH VESSELS
      6. LINES VARIOUS MEMBRANES IN THORAX/ABDOMEN

    2. SIMPLE CUBOIDAL

      1. SINGLE LAYER OF CUBE SHAPED CELLS
      2. CARRIES ON SECRETION AND ABSORPTION IN KIDNEYS AND GLANDS

    3. SIMPLE COLUMNAR TISSUES

      1. ELONGATED CELLS
      2. NUCLEI ARE LOCATED NEAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE
      3. LINES THE UTERUS, GI TRACT
      4. FUNCTIONS: SECRETION, ABSORPTION, PROTECTION
      5. ABSORBING CELLS OFTEN CONTAIN MICRO VILLI
      6. TISSUE USUALLY CONTAINS GOBLET CELLS THAT CONTAIN MUCUS

    4. PSUEDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

      1. APPEARS STRATIFIED BECAUSE OF NUCLEI PLACEMENT
      2. CELLS POSSESS CILIA TO MOVE MUCUS OR CELLS OVER THE SURFACE
      3. LINES TUBES OF RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS

    5. STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
      1. COMPOSED OF MANY CELL LAYERS
      2. PROTECTS UNDERLYING CELLS
      3. FOUND IN SKIN, MOUTH, THROAT, VAGINA, AND ANAL CANAL

    6. TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM

      1. TISSUE CAN UNDERGO DISTENSION
      2. OCCURS IN WALLS OF ORGANS IN THE URINARY TRACT
      3. PREVENTS CONTENTS OF URINARY FROM DIFFUSING OUTWARD

    7. GLANDULAR EPITHELIUM

      1. SPECIALIZED TO SECRETE SUBSTANCES
      2. ONE OR MORE CELLS CONSTITUTE A GLAND

        1. ) EXOCRINE GLANDS: SECRETE INTO DUCTS
        2. ) ENDOCRINE GLANDS: SECRETE INTO TISSUE FLUID OR BLOOD

      3. GLANDS CLASSIFIED IN THREE GROUPS ACCORDING TO CONTENT OF SECRETIONS

        1. MEROCRINE: WATERY FLUID, NO CYTOPLASM. MOST SECRETORY CELLS THESE SERIOUS CONTAIN HIGH % ENZYMES. MUCUS CELLS SECRETE MUCUS ( EX. SALIVARY, PANCREATIC, SOME SWEAT)
        2. APOCRINE GLANDS: LOSE PORTION OF CELLS DURING SECRETION (EX. MAMMARY GLANDS, CERTAIN SWEAT GLANDS)
        3. HOLOCRINE GLANDS: RELEASE CELLS FILLED WITH SECRETORY PRODUCT (EX. SEBACEOUS GLAND OF THE SKIN)

      4. GLANDS ARE ALSO CLASSIFIED BY CELL ARRANGEMENT

        1. TUBULAR CONSIST OF SIMPLE EPITHELIAL
        2. ALEVOLAR ARE SACK LIKE DILATIONS CONNECTED TO SURFACE BY DUCTS

  3. CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    1. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

      1. CONNECTS
      2. SUPPORTS
      3. PROTECTS
      4. PROVIDES FRAMEWORK
      5. FILLS SPACES
      6. STORES FAT
      7. PRODUCES BLOOD CELLS
      8. PROTECTION FROM INFECTION
      9. REPAIR OF TISSUES

    2. CONSISTS OF CELLS USUALLY SOME DISTANCE APART AND OF A LARGE MATRIX AREA

      1. MAJOR CELL TYPES

        1. ) FIBROBLASTS: PRODUCE COLLAGENOUS AND ELASTIC FIBERS
        2. ) MACROPHAGES: SERVES AS PHAGOCYTES
        3. ) MAST CELLS: CONTAIN HEPARIN AND HISTAMINE

    3. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

      1. FORMS THIN MEMBRANE BETWEEN TISSUES AND BINDS TOGETHER
      2. FOUND BENEATH SKIN AND BETWEEN MUSCLES
      3. CONTAINS TISSUE FLUIDS IN INTERCELLUAR SPACES

    4. ADIPOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

      1. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT STORES FAT
      2. PROVIDES A CUSHION AND INSULATES
      3. FOUND BENEATH SKIN, ABDONINAL MEMBRANES, AROUND KIDNEYS, HEART, AND VARIOUS JOINTS

    5. FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE

      1. COMPOSED LARGELY OF STRONG COLLAGNEOUS FIBERS THAT BIND PARTS TOGETHER
      2. FOUND IN TENDONS, LIGAMENTS, WHITE LAYER OF EYEBALL, AND DEEP LAYERS OF SKIN
      3. RELATIVELY FEW CELLS

    6. ELASTIC CONNECTIVE

      1. COMPOSED OF ELASTIC TISSUES
      2. GIVES ELASTICITY TO WALLS OF CERTAIN HOLLOW ORGANS (LARGE ARTERIES, PORTIONS OF HEART, AND LARGE AIRWAYS

    7. RETICULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE

      1. COMPOSED OF THIN COLLAGENOUS FIBERS
      2. SUPPORTS WALL OF LIVER, SPLEEN, AND LYMPH ORGANS

  4. CARTILAGE

    1. PROVIDES SUPPORT AND FRAME WORK
    2. INTERCELLULAR MATERIAL COMPOSED OF A GROUND GEL LIKE MATRIX
    3. LACKS A DIRECT BLOOD SUPPLY AND IS SLOW TO HEAL
    4. CARTILAGE STRUCTURES ARE USUALLY ENCLOSED IN A PERICHONDRIUM WHICH CONTAINS BLOOD SUPPLY
    5. THREE MAJOR TYPES OF CARTILAGE

      1. HYALINE: END OF BONES, SOFT PART OF NOSE, RINGS OF RESPIRATORY PASSAGE -MANY SKELETAL PARTS OF AN EMBRYO ARE FIRST HYALINE
      2. ELASTIC: EXTERNAL EAR AND LARNYX -MORE FLEXIBLE THAN HYALINE
      3. FIBROCARTILAGE: INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, KNEES, AND PELVIC GIRDLE -MADE OF VERY TOUGH WHITE FIBERS

  5. BONE

    1. THE INTERCELLULAR MATRIX OF BONE CONTAIN MINERAL SALTS AND COLLAGEN
    2. THE CELLS ARE ARRANGED IN CONCENTRIC CIRCLES AROUND HAVERSIAN CANALS AND CONNECTED BY CANACULI
    3. ACTIVE TISSUE AND HEALS RAPIDLY

  6. BLOOD

    1. COMPOSED OF CELLS IN A FLUID
    2. CELLS ARE FORMED BY TISSUE IN HOLLOW PARTS OF BONE
    3. TRANSPORTS WHITE BLOOD CELLS TO CONNECTIVE TISSUE
    4. RETICULOENDOTHELIAL TISSUE COMPOSED OF PHAGOCYTES DITRIBUTED IN BODY ORGANS
    5. BODY DEFENSE AGAINST MICROORGANISMS

  7. INFLAMATION

    1. BODY RESPONSE TO INJURY OR OTHER CONDITION
    2. RED, WARM, SWOLLEN, PAINFUL TISSUE
    3. PREVENTS SPREAD OF INFECTION
    4. PROMOTES HEALING PROCESS

  8. MUSCLE TISSUE

    1. CONTRACTILE TISSUE
    2. ARE CALLED EXCITABLE TISSUES
    3. MUSCLE FIBERS CONTRACT ONLY WHEN STIMULATED BY A NERVE AND IMMEDIATELY RELAX
    4. THREE TYPES

      1. SKELETAL MUSCLE
        1. ATTACHED TO BONES
        2. VOLUNTARY
        3. MUSCLE FIBERS LONG AND THREAD LIKE

      2. SMOOTH MUSCLE

        1. FOUND IN WALL OF HOLLOW ORGANS
        2. INVOLUNTARY

      3. CARDIAC MUSCLE

        1. FOUND ONLY IN HEART
        2. CELLS ARE JOINED BY INTERCALATED DISKS
        3. INVOLUNTARY

  9. NERVE TISSUE

    1. FOUND IN BRAIN, SPINAL CORD, AND NERVES
    2. CONTAIN NEURONS

      1. SENSITIVE TO CHANGE
      2. RESPOND BY SENDING IMPULSE TO BRAIN OR OTHER NEURONS

    3. REGULATE AND COORDINATE BODY ACTIVITIES

  10. NEUROGLIAL CELLS

    1. BIND AND SUPPORT NERVE TISSUE
    2. SOME CARRY ON PHAGOCTYOSIS
    3. SOME CONNECT NEURONS TO BLOOD VESSELS
END OF CHAPTER 5............

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